Algonquin Indian Tribe


*Algonquin (or Algonkin) Indians, North American Indian Tribe. Among the first with whom the French made an alliance, they were driven out of their territory along the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers by the Iroquois in the 17th and 18th centuries. Some united with the Ottawa Indians; a few remain in Ontario and Quebec. originally the name "Algonquin" was applied only to the Weskarini of the Gatineau valley, but its application was widened to include other closely related tribes such as the Nipissing and Abitibi. The tribe gave its name to the Algonquian linguistic division.


THE ALGONQUINS

America, at the time of its discovery by Europeans, was peopled by a race whose origin has ever remained a matter of conjecture; whence they came and their relationship, if any, to other peoples who then occupied or had occupied other portions of the known world has remained one of the unsolved problems of the race; nor is it of any particular interest except as an abstract question of ethnology whether they were the descendents of the lost tribes of Israel or of the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings of Egypt, or of the Tyrians, each of which had played its part in the drama of life and disappeared from the stage. Whether they had in some remote period crossed from the Eastern hemisphere, or were indigenous to the soil are problems that arouse the interest of the student of sociology, because they raise the question whether the Indians of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries had relapsed into a state of at least semi-barbarism from the civilization of Europe, Asia and Northern Africa as developed centuries before, or had advanced by glow stages from the more complete barbarism of primitive men.

For the purpose of this work, we will take them as they were, leaving the problem of their origin and development to be discussed, or further discussed, by scientists in the hope that, as matter of abstract knowledge, the wisdom of future ages may penetrate the veil. Taking them as the Europeans found them, ethnologists tell us that the territory now included within the bounds of the United States, excluding Alaska and the islands of the seas, was occupied by seven distinct families, three of which, the Algonquin, Iroquois and Appalachian, sometimes called the Mobilian, were east of the Mississippi River.

As our interest at this time is limited to those tribes located in Southern New England, I shall not make further reference to the latter group which lay south of the Carolinas, nor to the Iroquois except to call attention to their activities, as those activities affected the Algonquin tribes located along the shores of the rivers, lakes and sea and in the forest fastnesses of New England.

Of the Iroquois, or Hodenosaunee, as they called themselves, the Five Nations of New York were the dominant league, and eventually, being joined by a sixth, thus making them the six nations, as they are frequently called, they overcame and absorbed the other tribes of their own race; and so in later times the six nations and Iroquois became almost identical in meaning. The original five nations were the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. The Tuscaroras had at some earlier time broken away and settled on the coast and streams of the Carolinas, where they maintained themselves against the hostile attacks of Algonquins and Appalachians for generations, but were eventually reunited with their ancient brethren. The subjugated Iroquois tribes, the remnants of which were absorbed by the five nations, were the Hurons or Wyandots, Eries and Andastes. Whence they came, to have thus settled themselves in the limited territory they occupied, entirely surrounded by Algonquins, is uncertain. They themselves have three traditions concerning the matter, one of which tells us that they came from the north, another that they came from the west, and the third that they sprang from the soil of New York State.

The totemic clan seems to have been more highly developed among them than among the Algonquins, the several tribes, independently of their tribal relations, being united in eight such clans, the members of which were bound together by ties stronger than those of tribal relationship, intermarriage between members of the same clan being prohibited, though allowed between members of the same tribe but of different clans.

Francis Parkman, Jr., than whom no historian has taken greater pains to secure absolute accuracy, says of them: "They extended their conquests and their depradations from Quebec to the Carolinas, and from the Western prairies to the forests of Maine. On the South they forced tribute from the subjugated Delawares and pierced the mountain fastnesses of the Cherokees with incessant forays. On the North they uprooted the ancient settlement of the Wyandots, on the West they exterminated the Eries and the Andastes, and spread havoc and dismay around the tribes of the Illinois; and on the East the Indians of New England fled at the first peal of the Mohawk War Cry. Their war parties roamed over half America, and their name was a terror from the Atlantic to the Mississippi; but when we ask the numerical strength of the dreaded confederacy, when we discover that, in the days of their greatest triumphs, their united cantons could not have mustered four thousand warriors, we stand amazed at the folly and dissension which left so vast a region the prey of a handful of bold marauders."

From this it is readily seen that they were a warlike people, dreaded by the Algonquins everywhere, by whom they seem to be known simply as Mohawks, this being perhaps the dominant tribe in the league. The period of their greatest triumph appears to have been from 1649 to 1672, for it was then that they subjugated their own kindred tribes, the Hurons, Eries and Andastes, and overran the Delawares.

One of the peculiar customs of the Iroquois is worth a word in passing, and that is the rule of descent through the female line; that is, a chief's brother, sister or sister's children succeeded to the chieftaincy rather than his own or his brother's children, the reason being that by no inconstancy on the part of the wife of a chief or of his mother or sisters, was it possible that his brother, sister or sister's children should not be of his own family, even if only through the mother, while the children of his wife or of his brother's wife might be no relation to him.

Such were the neighbors on the west of the Indians of New England in whom we are more particularly interested in connection with this work, but whose history is such a mixture of wars among themselves resulting from what appear to be successive waves of migration, constantly driven down to the New England coast through their inability to plant their feet on the lands preempted by the Iroquois; and wars with the Mohawks themselves, who crowded them so close on the west that no sketch of the eastern Algonquins is quite complete without considering briefly these neighbors who had succeeded in some way in planting themselves upon or within the Algonquin territory, where they remained, a pestilential thorn in the flesh of the tribes surrounding them.

Of the three eastern groups or families, the Algonquins were undoubtedly the most numerous and extended over the largest expanse of territory. Their dominion, excepting the region south of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and the peninsula between these lakes and Lake Huron, which was occupied by the Iroquois, extended from Hudson's Bay to the Carolinas and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and Lake Winnipeg. To quote again from Parkman: "They were Algonquins who greeted Jacques Cartier, as his ships ascended the St. Lawrence. The first British Colonists found savages of the same race hunting and fishing along the coasts and inlets of Virginia, and it was the daughter of an Algonquin chief who interceded with her father for the life of the adventuresome Englishman. They were Algonquins, who, under Sassacus the Pequot and Philip of Mt. Hope, waged deadly war against the Puritans of New England, who dwelt at Pennacock under the rule of the great magician, Passaconaway, and trembled before the evil spirits of the Crystal Hills; and who sang Aves and told their beads in the forest chapel of Father Rasles, by the banks of the Kennebec. They were Algonquins, who under the great tree at Kensington, made the covenant of peace with William Penn."

In the year 1000 when Thorvald with his viking crew sought to establish a colony at Vinland, this group of the American Indians was limited to much narrower confines. The skroellings whom he encountered and at whose hands he met his fate, during the five centuries that elapsed between his adventurous attempt and the next recorded visits of Europeans, had been driven north by advancing waves of Algonquin migration; and their descendants are still occupying the frozen regions of the far north. Esquimau, we call them, signifying in the Algonquin tongue, "Eaters of Raw Fish." What took place during those five centuries is matter of conjecture; but there are certain historical facts that make it possible to draw inferences supported by reason.

The Leni Lenapee, in their own tongue, the Loups of the French, the Delawares of the English, call themselves the parent stock of the Algonquin group, and their claim seems to be admitted by the other branches. The name by which they designate themselves means "original men," and in speaking of or to the members of other tribes of the family, they used the terms, little brothers, children, grandchildren or nephews, and the other tribes referred to them as father or grandfather.

So it is likely that the Algonquin group had its origin, or at some remote time had established itself, in the vicinity of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and eastern Pennsylvania, and as its original limits became too narrow it spread out to the North, the East, the South and the West in successive waves of migration, each driving the preceding one further and further away from the home of its fathers.

Schoolcraft believes that the Wolf Totem, or Mohicans, were the first of the three clans of the Lenapee to migrate, locating near Albany, whence they were driven over the Hoosic and Pekonet ranges into the valley of the Housatonic; and Gallatin says this was the only one of the subdivisions to leave their ancient hunting grounds. Neither expresses any opinion whether they were forced eastward from the Hudson by other migratory bands of Algonquins from the parent stock or by the Iroquois; and there appears to be nothing in the works of early historians that furnishes any evidence, gathered by men who have made a study of Indian lore and traditions at their sources, whether the Iroquois were there before the Algonquins in such strength that they could not be forced back, but allowed the latter to sweep around them, or came down from the west or north and met the advancing movement of the Algonquin migration and drove a wedge in it which could not be dislodged.

Schoolcraft thinks it probable that the Pequots, who, in the beginning of the seventeenth century were in the ascendency in the Mohican federation, were true Mohicans, and that the wars waged between Sassacus the Pequot and Uncas the Mohican were family rows for the sovereignty of the federation. In speaking of the Pequot war in which that tribe, with its six or seven hundred fighting men, was wiped out he says, "By this defeat the Mohicans, a minor branch of the federation, under the government of Uncas gained the ascendency in Connecticut." The whole matter of tribal relations is so much in doubt that speculation is almost useless, and yet it has a fascination that makes it difficult to leave.

Major Daniel Gookin, who commanded the Middlesex regiment in King Philip's war, writing in 1674, which would be just before that war broke out, enumerates as the five principal "nations" of New England, the "Pequots, including the Mohicans, and occupying the eastern part of the state of Connecticut; the Narragansetts, occupying nearly all of Rhode Island; the Pawkunnawkuts or Wampanoags, chiefly within the jurisdiction of Plymouth Colony; the Massachusetts, in the bay of that name and adjacent parts; and the Pawtuckets north and east of the Massachusetts, including the Pennacooks of New Hampshire, and probably all the northeastern tribes as far as the Abenakis or Tarrateens, as they seem to have been called by the New England Indians." The Nipmucks he mentions as living north of the Mohicans and west of the Massachusetts, occupying the central part of that state, and acknowledging to a certain extent, the supremacy of the Massachusetts, the Narragansetts or the Mohicans. Other writers also assert that some of their tribes were tributary to the Wampanoags, and there is very good reason for believing this to be true.

These federations comprise the tribes with which the earliest colonists were brought directly in contact, and, consequently in the pursuit of the subject in which we are particularly interested, further mention of the Indians of New England will be limited for the most part to them. In passing, however, a glance at some of the other tribes whom Gookin groups as Abenakis or Tarrateens, will not be out of place. Other writers apply the term Abenaki to a much narrower limit, confining it to the Micmacs of Nova Scotia, called Souriquois by the French, the Abenaki, now called the St. Francis, in Canada, and the Passamaquoddies and Penobscots of Maine, which four tribes or federations are said to have called themselves not Abenaki, that being the name of one of them, but "Wabanaki," an Algonquin word meaning white or light, and believed to refer to the fact that they were the first upon whom the light of the sun rested as he started in his daily journey across the heavens.

The Micmacs, Passamaquoddies and Penobscots appear to have been extremely rich in folklore, myth and legend, an interesting collection of which was made by Charles G. Leland in 1884 under the title of "Algonquin Legends of New England." As one of the sources of his authority for these legends and traditions, Leland tells us that the Wampum Records of the Passamaquoddies were read for him by "Sapiel Selmo, the only living Indian who had the key to them."

Whatever subdivisions may have existed among them, or whatever federations made up of various closely related tribes; whatever potency there may have been in their totemic bonds; whatever civil wars may have rent them asunder, this fact we know, that from the time of our earliest knowledge of this part of the world after the Saga of Thorvald, until their practical extermination, all of New England was peopled by tribes of this great Algonquin family. To attempt an enumeration of them would be useless; their name is legion; and most of them are long since forgotten, except as they have left their names indelibly stamped upon the places they once inhabited, the mountains from whose summits their watch fires burned as they surveyed from the lofty heights the country round, and the streams upon whose silvery bosoms they paddled their light canoes.

A few of the more powerful tribes, or, in some cases, federations, have made such an impress upon the life of the colonists, with whom the history of America, as it is today, begins, that their names and exploits have been handed down to us by the writers of that history; and a remnant of what was once a proud and powerful people in some few cases remains to remind their conquerors how futile were a he efforts of the children of nature to withstand the onward sweep of a higher civilization than they had ;attained. Among the latter are the Passamaquod dies, some five or six hundred of whom still occupy a small portion of their ancient hunting grounds in eastern Maine; the Penobscots, who in the early hart of the seventeenth century occupied the beautiful valley of the river and the shores of the bay from which time has not been able to efface their name, and in which river two islands still furnish a home for the five or six hundred remaining members of the tribe; and the Gay Heads, the descendants of the tribe that under the Sachem Epenow, in the Pilgrims' time occupied Capawack or Nope, now Martha's Vineyard, together with a few scattering members of other tribes distributed throughout Massachusetts; to say nothing of the few hundred descendants of the Mohicans who fought under Uncas, and a like number in whose veins flows the blood of the warriors who followed the three great Narragansett Chiefs, Canonicus, Miantonomo and Canonchet.

Many of these have by intermarriage almost lost their identity, and even those who still cling to the lands allotted to them by the governments, are for the most part so crossed with other races that they would not, in most instances, be recognized as the descendants of the men our fathers found here three hundred years ago.

The Passamaquoddies and Penobscots are as much French as Indian, and nearly all the natives of Massachusetts have mingled the blood of the Indian with that of the African, Schoolcraft saying in 1850 that there were not more than seven or eight full blooded Indians among the eight hundred and forty-seven in the state. Occasionally one meets a family who would never be suspected of being anything but the purest whites, but who boast the blood of the children of the forest.

Among the tribes that have left their names indelibly stamped upon the localities in which they lived, but were not so closely connected with the earliest settlements as to have been active participants in the scenes enacted there, and consequently have not received the particular attention of historians, and have left no sufficient surviving remnant of their former strength to perpetuate their memory through their posterity, one notes with interest the Kennebecs, whose lordly river still flows down to the sea through their ancient hunting grounds with the same calm and peaceful movement in the seasons of low water, and the same torrential rush when the sun in his northward travels unfetters its thousand feeding brooks and springs, as in the days when the children of the forest dipped their dusky bodies in its cooling waters; the Norridgewocks, who dwelt farther back towards the headwaters of the same river, and whose name will not be forgotten as long as the people of Norridgewock, Maine, tell their children that their town derives its name from the Indians whose children listened to the folklore and songs of their people at their mothers' knees on this same spot three centuries ago; the Androscoggins who dipped their paddles noiselessly into the waters of the noble river that now turns the wheels of hundreds of mills, but will not allow the name of its first navigators to be sunk in oblivion; the Piscataquas who dwelt about the place where now a government navy yard gives shelter to men of war beside which the frail bark canoes of the natives are as the fingerlings of the shore beside the leviathans of the deep, and who have left their name upon the river that "widens to meet the sea" at Portsmouth; and the Pemaquids, who little dreamed when they heaped the shells of clams and other edible mollusks in huge piles along the shore, that they were erecting a monument to themselves, to be gazed at in wonder by generations of their destroyers; and whose name still clings to the places they once roamed at will.

Other powerful federations there were whose friendship or hostility were matters of life or death to hundreds, aye, even thousands of the early adventurers -who attempted to establish upon these shores homes for themselves and their posterity, adventurers only in the sense that they ventured everything, even life itself, upon a throw of the dice of fate. Drake speaks of five great Sachemries, the Pequots, Narragansetts, Wampanoags, Massachusetts, and Pawtuckets, and he speaks of them as though they were the only five federations in New England worthy the dignity of that designation, following Gookin in this respect; but it may be doubted whether some of these ever held in complete subordination many of the tribes which were at times closely associated with them. An illustration of this is seen in the Connecticut River Indians of various tribal designations, the Mohicans and Niantics who were among the deadly enemies of the Pequots, by whom they were conquered and reduced to such a state of subjugation that they may perhaps have been fairly counted as of the Pequot nation in the early colonial days.

The Tarratines - Another interesting group whose identity is not clearly established, is that known in New England history as Tarratines, Tarrateens or Tamentines, as the name is variously spelled. Who they were or whence they came is one of history's unsolved problems. That they were able to muster powerful raiding parties is clearly shown by the success with which they carried out their plundering expeditions against the tribes of Massachusetts and Wampanoags before the pestilence had decimated these two federations. That they were raiders and plunderers is clearly established by the testimony of contemporary writers, part of whose information was gleaned from the sufferers from their expeditions. The great invasion of Massachusetts and Wampanoag territories sometime between 1615 and 1617 is accepted as a historical fact; Bradford speaks of the Massachusetts being in fear of them in September, 1621, that being the season of their visitations to "reap where they have not sowed"; and Drake tells of an attack made by them upon the Indians at Agawam (Ipswich) in August, 1631, in which they killed seven. In the Planters' Plea they are spoken of as a predatory tribe living fifty or sixty leagues to the northeast (of Massachusetts Bay); and it is there said that they raised no corn on account of the climate, but came down and reaped the Massachusetts Indians' harvest. Drake speaks of them as lying east of the Pawtuckets, and also as lying east of the Piscataqua River, which would place them almost anywhere in Maine, as he does not attempt to give their precise limits. Albert Gallatin in his Archaeologia Americana, in which he calls the five federations of Southern New England by the general designation New England Indians, says the dividing line between these latter and the Abenaki was somewhere between the Piscataqua and the Kennebec, and cites Governor Sullivan as authority for placing it at the Saco River. He also calls attention to what he calls a confirmation of this by French writers who mention a tribe which they call the Sakokies, adjacent to the Abenaki and the New England Indians, and which was originally in alliance with the Iroquois, but were converted by the Jesuits and withdrew into Canada. Other writers locate the Tarratines definitely east of the Penobscot, which would bring them between the Passamaquoddies and the Penobscots unless they were, indeed, roving members of one or both of these tribes. Gallatin makes no other mention of them as a tribe than to quote from Gookin, who speaks of the "Abenakis or Tarrateens, as they are called by the New England Indians." The two names are used by Gookin to designate all the Indians east of the Pawtuckets, and Schoolcraft accepts this classification. Gallatin further says: "The tribes of Nova Scotia in the Bay of Fundy were first called by the French Souriquois. They are now known as Micmacs. The French adopted the names given by the Souriquois to the neighboring tribes. The Etchemins, stretching from the Passamaquoddy Bay to St. John's Island and west of the Kennebec River as far as Cape Cod, they called the Almouchiquois."

Etchemins means canoe men, and may well have been applied to the bold canoe men of all the shore tribes who navigated the deep waters of the sea, and Almouchiquois would then mean the same. If we attempt to give it any other meaning we are forced to the conclusion that the French or the Micmacs, whichever first defined their limits as above, knew very little about the people to the southwest, or that every one else is very much mistaken. Continuing Gallatin says: "The Indians at the mouth of the Kennebec planted nothing according to Champlain, but those further inland or up the river planted maize. These inland tribes were the Abenakis, consisting of several tribes, the principal of which were the Penobscots, the Norridgewocks and the Ameriscoggins, and it is not improbable that the Indians at the mouth of both rivers were confounded by Champlain with the Etchemins belonging to the same nation. The Etchemins comprise the Passamaquoddies in the United States and the St. John's in New Brunswick." In another paragraph he says that Champlain found no cultivation of the soil from Passamaquoddy Bay to the Kennebec River.

The French writers' reference to a tribe between the Abenaki and the New England Indians is interesting from two points. They were in alliance with the Iroquois, which leads to the inquiry whether they may not have been a branch of that group, sprung from some of their war parties who overcame the tribe occupying the location where the French found them, slaughtered the warriors, and took the women to their own wigwams, and settled down upon the conquered territory. Were they the Tarratines? The warlike propensity of the Iroquois manifests itself in the Tarratine raids; but against this theory is the fact that the Iroquois were advanced agriculturalists, and the "Tarratines raised no corn"; and the further fact that the region where nothing was planted was at the mouth of the Kennebec and east of it, while this mysterious tribe, which appears to have escaped the notice of the English writers, lived west of that river. I do not advance any opinion, but simply call attention to this matter as an interesting subject for speculation.

If we attempt to reconcile all the apparently conflicting statements concerning these people, we are forced to the conclusion that the Etchemins or Almouchiquois were the dwellers along the coast, experts in handling their frail barks, daring navigators of various tribes, but not a distinct tribe; that Abenaki was a term applied generally to a large group of tribes covering Maine, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the name undoubtedly being derived from the same root as as "Wabanaki" which as already noted means light; that Tarratine was not the name of any tribe but a term applied to the raiding parties which visited the Massachusetts coast; and if the statement in the Planter's Plea that they planted no corn is correct, and Champlain's definite location of the people who planted nothing is reliable, then the Tarratines were Abenaki, living east of the Kennebec River or at its mouth; they were Etchemins, or bold navigators; they planted nothing, not as said in the Planter's Plea "on account of the climate," for the tribes "farther inland cultivated maize"; but because they preferred to secure their supply of corn by reaping their neighbors' harvest.

The Pennacooks - Gookin, Drake and Schoolcraft speak of the federation, sometimes called Pennacooks, as Pawtuckets, but in his last speech, Passaconaway, their sachem, uses the term Pennacooks in such a way as to indicate that this was the name applied to all his people. It may, however, be' that Passaconaway or some of his predecessors, was originally the sachem of the Pennacooks, and that this was the dominant tribe in the Pawtucket federation, just as appears to have been the situation with relation to the Pokanokets and the Wampanoags. As we shall not have occasion again to refer particularly to the Pennacooks, a word about its aged sachem, Passaconaway, and his son and successor, Wonolancet, may well be written here in passing. Passaconaway resided at Pawtucket Falls (Lowell), had an alliance with the Penobscots, and was a friend of Eliot, the celebrated preacher among the Indians, but did not appear to be particulary interested in the religion he preached until 1648. It appears that in 1642, the settlers, becoming distrustful of Passaconaway in consequence of rumors that he was stirring up discord among the Indians, sent men to arrest him and his son Wonolancet. Passaconaway succeeded in evading them through the intervention of a storm that raged with considerable violence, but they took Wonolancet and led him away with a rope around his neck, for by such acts they sought to inspire terror in the hearts of the natives rather than, by acts of consideration, to inspire confidence. Wonolancet escaped but was retaken and brought to Boston. This act made Passaconaway suspicious of the English and of their motives, and undoubtedly served to widen the breach between the two races that had already resulted from some arbitrary acts on the part of the English, and which finally culminated in King Philip's war; and it is given by some early writers as a reason for Passaconaway's refusal to see Eliot when he made a visit to the Falls in the fishing season of 1647. The following year, however, he heard him preach, and publicly announced his belief in the God of the English.

In 1660 he turned over the active direction of the affairs of his tribe to Wonolancet, his son, and soon after died, it is said at the age of one hundred and twenty years. Wonolancet wielded the sceptre until 1667 and maintained friendly relations with the whites during all that time. In 1660, probably on the occasion of his surrendering the tomahawk of authority to Wonolancet, a great feast was given at Pawtucket Falls in his honor, which was attended not only by his own people but by chiefs and warriors from other tribes. On this occasion, he delivered his farewell address as reported by early writers as follows:

PASSACONAWAY'S SPEECH

"Hearken to the words of your father! I am an old oak that has withstood the storms of more than a hundred winters. Leaves and branches have been stripped from me by the winds. My eyes are dim; my limbs totter; I must soon fall. When young, no one could bury the hatchet in the sapling before me. My arrows could pierce the deer at a hundred rods. No wigwam had so many furs, no pole had so many scalplocks as Passaconaway's. Then I delighted in war. The whoop of the Pennacooks was heard on the Mohawk, and no voice as loud as Passaconaway's. The scalps upon the pole in my wigwam told the story of Mohawk suffering. The English came; they seized the lands; they followed upon my footpaths. I made war upon them but they fought with fire and thunder. My young men were swept down before me when no one was near them. I tried sorcery against them but they still increased, and prevailed over me and mine; I gave place to them and retired to my beautiful island, Naticook. I, who can take the rattlesnake in my palm as I would a worm without harm - I, that have had communication with the Great Spirit, dreaming and awake - I am powerless before the pale faces. These meadows they shall turn with the plow; these forests shall fall by the axe; the pale faces shall live upon your hunting grounds and make their villages upon your fishing places. The Great Spirit says this and it must be so. We are few and powerless before them. We must bend before the storm. Peace with the white men is the command of the Great Spirit and the wish-the last wish-of Passaconaway."

I have already referred to the Leni Lenapee as the parent stock of the Algonquins; and to the fact of their subjugation by the Five Nations at some time between 1649 and 1672; but as I did not call attention to the depth of their degradation, this chapter would hardly be complete without further reference to it. So complete was their defeat and submission to their conquerors, that they were compelled to forego the use of arms and to assume the name of "women." So when Penn made his famous treaty with them in 1682, he treated with "women" and not with warriors.

When the Five Nations afterwards allotted land to them, and they were crowded by the encroachments of settlers, they moved even further west than they were ordered, and espoused the cause of the French in their wars with the English.

At the outbreak of the revolution they declared their independence of their conquerors, and a few years later at a public council, the Five Nations confessed that the Lenapee were no longer women but men; and thus the stock that had peopled nearly all the north-eastern part of the continent came into its own again. At the time of which we write they had not been reduced to a state of vassalage. but were still the grandfather of the other tribes of the Algonquin family and lived in their ancient hunting grounds, a free people, just as their descendants lived in all the vast territory the limits of which I have already outlined.

Here they and their children of the other tribes fished the streams whose banks are now lined with the cities of the strangers from across the great waters whom they welcomed with open arms, and who repaid their hospitality by waging upon them a perpetual war of extermination. Here they hunted the primeval forests, which the settlers' axe has laid low that the giant trees might contribute to the requirements of a people to whom the Indian methods of living were but a tradition of the past. Here, too, their war whoops resounded as they waged their internecine war upon each other; and here, when the tomahawk had been buried, they smoked the pipe of peace, and its smoke ascending wafted their prayers to the Great Spirit, whose existence revealed itself to them in every object that came within range of their observation.

The Wampanoags, Narragansetts, Pequots and Mohicans were so closely associated with the various affairs growing out of the first contact of the whites with Massasoit and his Wampanoags that I shall consider them further in subsequent chapters, which will also contain occasional reference to the Massachusetts; and, as the individuality of the sachems was a potent factor in the attitude of their tribes, due attention will be given to the prominent leaders of their people.

Algonquin Place Names

Algonquin Legends by Charles G. Leland
No Word for Time : The Way of the Algonquin People by Evan T. Pritchard
The Algonquins by Daniel Clement
The Last Algonquin by Theodore L. Kazamiroff